Nationalism in India SAQ CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences
Q.1, What was Satyagraha ? Name any two places where Satyagraha was launched by Gandhiji.
Name the two main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917.
[CBSE 2008 (D), March 2011]
Ans. (i) Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(a) Champaran : Gandhiji launched the Satyagraha to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(b) Kheda : He launched the Kheda Satyagraha to support the peasants who were not in a position to pay the revenue due to crop failure.
Q.2. Who was the writer of the book, ‘Hind Swaraj’. What was the theme of the book?
Explain the ideas of Gandhiji as he expressed in the famous book ‘Hind Swaraj’ regarding Non-cooperation. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi wrote the Hindi Swaraj. In the book, Gandhiji declared that the British rule was established in India with the
cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation.
If Indians refused to cooperate, the British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj would be established.
Q.3. Mention any four factors which were responsible in arousing the spirit of nationalism in India.
Ans. (i) Political unification of the country under the Britishers.
(ii) Destruction of India’s old social and economic system.
(iii) Development of modern trade and industry.
(iv) The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups.
Q.4. What was the impact of the First World War on India ?[CBSE 2015]
Explain new economic and political situations created in India during the First World War. [CBSE 2008 (O)]
What was the impact of the First World War on the economic conditions in India ? [CBSE March 2011, 2013 (D)]
Ans. The War created a new economic and political situation :
(i) It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes, customs duties were raised, and income tax introduced.
(ii) Through the war years, prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardships for the common people.
(iii) Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
Q.5. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nation wide ‘Satyagraha’ against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 ? Explain any three reasons. [CBSE 2010 2014(0) (D) 2015 (D)]
What was the Rowlatt Act ? How it affected the National Movement ?
Ans. (i) Rowlatt Act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council on a report of the Sedition Committee, headed by Justice Rowlatt.
(ii) It was the black act which gave the government and the police to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without tried for two years.
(iii) The Act was passed despite the united opposition of the Indian members of the Council.
This Act became one of the factors due to which Gandhiji launched Non-Cooperation Movement.
Q.6. What were the three local issues in which Gandhiji experimented his technique of Satyagraha during the years 1917-1918 ? How were these issues resolved ? [CBSE March 2011]
Ans. The three local issues were Champaran satyagraha ; Kheda satyagraha and Ahmedabad satyagraha.
(i) Champaran Satyagraha. In the first experiment indigo farmers were encouraged to raise their voice against the oppressive policies of the British. Their demands were sanctioned.
(ii) Kheda Satyagraha : The second experiment was for the farmers who were unable to pay the revenue because of famine and plague epidemic. The recovery was waived off.
(iii) Ahmedabad Satyagraha : The third was for the mill workers who were protesting for better wages. The British had to increase the wages along with reforms in working conditions.
Q.7. What was Rowlatt Act ? How did the Indians show their disapproval towards this Act ? [CBSE March 2011]
Ans. Rowlatt Act was an oppressive act introduced by the British Government in 1919. It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
* Mahatma Gandhi reacted sharply and decided to launch a non violent civil disobedience against such unjust law.
* Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railways, workshops and shops closed down.
* Peaceful protest meeting were organised at Jallianwala Bagh-Amritsar.
Q.8. Who launched the Khilafat Movement ? Why was the Movement launched ? [CBSE March 2012]
Ans. Khilafat movement was a united struggle launched by Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali with the cooperation of Mahatma Gandhi.
The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of the Islam world. The Sultan was deprived of real authority even over those territories which were left under his control. This angered the Muslims in India.
To defend the powers of Khalifa and to avert harsh peace treaty to be imposed on the Ottoman empire the Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 in Bombay.
Q.9. Why Gandhiji supported the Khilafat Movement ? [CBSE March 2011, 2012]
Ans. (i) As the Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited to cities and towns Gandhiji felt the need to launch a more broad based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims close together. So he took up the Khilafat issue.
(ii) A new generation of Muslim leaders like the Ali brothers, Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
Q.10. Mention three main proposals with reference to the Non-Cooperation Movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi. [CBSE 2008 (D)]
Gandhiji proposed that the NonCooperation should unfold in stages. Explain. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. The Non-Cooperation had two aspects, i.e., one relating to the struggle and the other relating to the norms of conduct and constructive work. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in the following stages :
(i) Surrender of titles, honours and honorary posts,
(ii) Boycott of Legislative Councils,
(iii) Boycott of law courts by the lawyers,
(iv) Boycott of Government schools and colleges, and withdrawal of children from these schools and colleges.
(v) Boycott of British goods, To get a popular support for the movement, Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively throughout India.
Q.11. Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji ?
Ans. (i) After returning from Africa in 1915 Gandhiji launched some local satyagraha’s but he was looking for an opportunity to launch a national level movement against the Britishers.
(ii) The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhiji to support the Khilafat
(iii) It was also launched against Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
(iv) Gandhiji merged the Khilafat Movement with the Non-cooperation Movement to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
Q.12. How was the Non-Cooperation Movement converted into a national movement by Gandhiji ?
Ans. (i) Hindu-Muslim Unity : Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. He was certain that no such movement could be organized without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together.
(ii) Merging Khilafat issue with the movement : So to unite the both the communities he decided to take up the Khilafat issue. The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
(iii) Talking to Muslim leaders : A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
Q.13. “The effects of Non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramtic.” Explain.
Explain the effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front.
[CBSE 2014 (F)] Or
Explain the impact of Non-Cooperation Movement in the economic field.
Ans. (i) Fall in imports : Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs. 102 crore to Rs. 57 crore.
(ii) Boycott of Foreign goods : In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(iii) Boost for Indian industry : As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Q.14. Who formed the Swaraj Party ? Why was the party formed ?
Ans. The Swaraj Party was formed by CR Das, and Moti Lai Nehru.
The Non cooperation movement failed to achieve its objective of Swaraj. So within the Congress some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.
Q.15. What were the factors responsible for the gradual slow down of the NonCooperation movement ? [CBSE 2008 (D), 2013 (D)]
Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities ? Give reasons. [CBSE March 2011, 2014, 21015 (D)]
Ans. (i) Expensive Khadi : The Khadi cloth was often more expensive than the mass- produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
(ii) No alternative : The boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions, had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British institutions but these were slow to come up. So students and teachers had no option except joining back government schools, and lawyers joined back work in government courts.
(iii) Local movements with different interpretation: Workers, industrialists, peasants, traders had their own understanding, of Gandhiji’s notion of ‘Swaraj.’ They started using violent methods for their demands. All this was not approved by Gandhiji and the Congress. So the movement started losing its shine.
Q.16. Describe briefly any three economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement. [CBSE 2009 (O)]
Ans. (i) Boycott of foreign goods : People decided to boycott foreign goods and wear Swadeshi clothes, and use Swadeshi goods.
(ii) Impact on imports : As people began discarding imported clothes, the import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922. Its value dropped from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore.
(iii) Impact on Indian industry: As people decided to boycott foreign clothes, production of Indian textile mills and handloom went up.
Q.17. What were circumstances which led to Jallianwala Bagh incident ? Describe in brief the reaction of the people immediately after the incident. [CBSE 2009 (F)] Or
Explain the impact of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people. [CBSE 2014 (O)]
Ans. (i) Rowlatt Act : The Rowlatt Act was passed by the government despite the united opposition of the Indian members. The act gave enormous powers to the police to arrest any one without any trail.
(ii) Rowlatt Satyagraha : Gandhiji decided to launch Rowlatt Satyagraha. Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike, and shops were closed down. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British government decided to arrest Indian leaders. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Delhi.
(iii) Martial Law : Seeing the people’s reaction against the arrest of their leaders police imposed Martial law in Amritsar. On 13th April 1919 General Dyer fired at the people who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh killing many.
People’s Reaction :
(a) As the news spread, crowd took to the streets in many north Indian towns.
(b) There were strikes, clashes with the police and attack on government buildings.
Q.18. “Plantation workers too had their own understanding of Gandhiji’s notion of Swaraj.” Explain.
Ans. (i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
(ii) The government had passed the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 under which plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea estates without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.
(iii) When the plantation workers heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of them defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed towards their homes.
(iv) The plantation workers believed that the Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
Q.19. Why did the tribal people join the NonCooperation Movement ?
Ans. Most of the tribal people were dependent on forests for their livelihood but under the new Forest Policy, the government had put several restrictions on the people :
- Closing large forest area for the tribal people.
- Forcing the local people to contribute begar.
- Preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
All these steps enraged the hill people. Not only were their livelihoods affected, but they felt that their traditional rights were also being denied. So the people revolted.
Q.20. Explain the circumstances under which Non-cooperation Movement was withdrawn.
Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement withdrawn by Gandhiji in February 1922. Explain the reasons. [CBSE 2015 (D)]
Explain the conditions of the plantation workers during the colonial rule in India. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. In February 1922, Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to the following reasons-
(i) The movement was turning violent. At Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration in a bazar turned into a violent clash in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
(ii) Gandhiji felt that the Safyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.
(iii) Within the Congress, some leaders were tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils, which were set up under the Government of India Act, 1919.
(iv) Industrialists, workers, peasants etc. interpreted the term ‘Swaraj’ in their own way. At many places like that of Andhra Pradesh, leaders like Alluri Sitaram Raju asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force. But there values were not approved by the Congress.
Q.21. When was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed ? Mention the provisions of the pact.
Ans. Gandhi – Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March, 1931.
Provisions of the pact
(i) Gandhiji consented to participate in the Second Round Table Conference.
(ii) The government agreed to release the political prisoners.
Q.22. Why was the Swaraj Party formed? By whom was the party formed ?
Ans. There were some Congress leaders who argued or advocated the idea of fighting the British from within the legislative councils. They wanted to pressurise the government for various reforms through councils. They also wanted to demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. Keeping in mind these objectives, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party in 1922.
Q.23. Why was the Simon Commission constituted ? Why was the commission rejected by the Indians ?
Ans. The Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the Government of India Act of 1919 A.D. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 A.D. to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon.
However Indians boycotted the commission, because :
(i) There was no Indian member in this commission.
(ii) The terms of the commission’s appointment did not give any indication of Swaraj while the demand of the Indians was only Swaraj.
Q.24. Under what circumstances, the Puma Swaraj was demanded by the Congress ?
Mention the main contents of resolution passed in the Lahore Session of Indian National Congress in December 1929 held under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. [CBSE2014]
Explain the reason for the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 to be called the historical session. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) The Simon Commission had to face demonstration all over India, and no party was in favour of the Commission. So in an effort to win the political parties the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of “dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.
(ii) The announcement fell short of the expectations of the Congress. At its Lahore Session, presided over by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in December, 1929, the Congress passed a resolution boycotting the Round Table Conference. It declared ‘Purna Swaraj’ (Complete Independence) as its goal, and took steps to launch a programme of Civil Disobedience. The Puma Swaraj Day was celebrated all over India on 26th January, 1930.
Q.25. Why salt was chosen as a weapon by Gandhiji to fight against the Britishers ?
Why did Mahatma Gandhi perceive “salt’ as a powerful symbol that unite the nation? [CBSE March 2011]
Ans. (i) Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.
(ii) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule.
(iii) Salt was chosen to give the movement a wide base.
Q.26. Why did the poor peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Why did the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remain uncertain ? [CBSE 2014(D)]
Ans. (i) The poor peasants had their own problems.
They were not just interested in lowering of the revenue, but also demanded remission of rent which they had failed to pay during the depression years.
(ii) In some parts of the country, they launched a ‘no rent’ campaign which was not supported by the Congress because this might had upset the rich peasants and landlords.
(iii) These poor peasants joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. So the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
Q.27. Why did the business class participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement ? [CBSE 2014(D)]
Ans. (i) The business class wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(ii) They wanted to free the business from colonial restrictions.
(iii) The business community interpreted Swaraj in their own way. They came to see Swaraj at the time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade industry would flourish without constraints.
Q.28. Who led the business community during | the Civil Disobedience Movement ? How did the community provide a big boost to the movement ? [CBSE 2010 (D), 2014(D)]
Explain with examples the role of industrialist in the freedom struggle of India.
Explain the attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialist towards the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.’ [CBSE 2015 (O)]
Ans. The business community was led by prominent : industrialists like Mr. Purshottam Das and Mr G.D. Birla.
(i) By opposing colonial policies: The industrial class was keen on expanding their business, so they reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They I wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(ii) Forming various organisations: To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
(iii) Support to Civil Disobedience Movement: Led by prominent industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. I Birla, the industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy, and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
(iv) Financial aid: They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods. Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
(v) Role of working class: The industrial working class also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. In 1930 thousands of workers in Chotanagpur participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
Q.29. Why did the business community later on withdraw from the Civil Disobedience Movement ?
Ans. (i) After the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
(ii) They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business.
(iii) They were worried about the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the Congress.
Q.30. Why the industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers ? Mention any two demands of the workers who participated in the movement. [CBSE 2014(F)]
“The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons. [CBSE 2015 (D)]
Ans. The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement and Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of the Movement.
Demands of workers
(i) They demanded higher wages.
(ii) They demanded proper working conditions.
Q.31. Explain the effects of “worldwide economic depression’ on India, towards late 1920s. [CBSE2013 (O)]
Ans. (i) The depression immediately affected Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India plunged. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
(ii) The fall in prices had a deep impact on the poor farmers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply but the colonial government refused to give any relief to the farmers in taxes. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit
- Their indebtedness increased.
- They were forced to sell or mortgage their land.
- People were forced to sell their assets like T gold and silver.
- Indian jute producers were worst affected.
(iii) The unrest created by the Great Depression provided an opportunity to Mahatma Gandhi to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931.
(iv) The depression proved less grim for urban India. Because of falling prices those with fixed income-like town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees-now found themselves better off. Everything cost less. Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tariff protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.
Q.32. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement called off by Gandhiji ?
[CBSE March 2012 (O)]
Ans. (i) When Indian leaders were arrested, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(ii) A month later, when Gandhiji himself was arrested, industrial workers attacked police posts, government buildings, law courts and railway stations and all structures that symbolised the British rule.
(iii) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000 people were arrested.
(iv) To break the deadline between Congress and the government Lord Irwin invited Gandhiji for a peace pact i.e Gandhi—Irwin pact.
(v) Under such a situation Gandhiji decided to call off the movement.
Q.33. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement relaunched by Gandhiji?
Ans. (i) Failure of the Second Round Table Conference : In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the conference, but the negotiations broke down, and he returned disappointed.
(ii) New cycle of repression : Back in India, Gandiji discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail, the Congress had been declared illegal, and a series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. With great apprehension, Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Q.34. Who designed the Swaraj flag? What were the features of this flag ? How was it used as a symbol of defiance ? [CBSE March 2012]
Ans. Gandhi ji.
(i) It was a tricolour (red, green and white).
(ii) It had a spinning wheel in the centre.
(iii) It had eight lotus representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
People used to carry the flag, holding it aloft, during marches.