CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Resources facilitate the satisfaction of human needs. They are not free gifts of nature. Instead they are a function of human activities. Humans themselves are important components of resources. They convert material available in our environment into resources by their intelligence and technical knowledge and use them.
2. Resources can be classified on the basis of origin, exhaustibility, ownership and status of development.
- On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic.
- On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable.
- On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international.
- On the basis of status of development – potential, developed, stock and reserves.
3. Resources are essential for human survival and for maintaining the quality of life. From this point of view, it is important that human beings use them judiciously. But the recent trend is something opposite.
4. The indiscriminate use of resources has posed several problems like depletion of resources, accumulation of resources in few hands, etc.
5. An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace. If the present trend of resource depletion continues, the future of our planet will be in danger. Therefore, resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.
6. Resource planning is important in a country like India, which has great diversity in the availability of resources. There are a few regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources. There are some regions which are self-sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources. This calls for balanced resource planning.
7. Resource planning is a complex process. India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning right from the First Five Year Plan.
8. The development of a region depends on two factors-availability of resources and corresponding changes in technology and institutions. There are many regions in our country that are rich in resources but are economically backward.
9. Resources are vital for any developmental activity. But irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important.
10. Land is a resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems.
11. India has land under a variety of relief features – mountains, plateaus, plains and islands. About 43 percent of the land area is plain. Mountains account for 30 percent of the total surface area of the country. About 27 percent of the area of the country is the plateau region.
12. The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well j as human factors such as population density, technological capability, culture and traditions etc.
13. Human activities such as deforestation, over-grazing, mining and quarrying have caused degradation of land. At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. There are many ways to solve the problems of land degradation. Afforestation and proper management of grazing can be helpful. Other methods include proper management of wastelands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents, etc.
14. Soil is a renewable resource. It is a living system. Indian soils are classified into various types – alluvial, black, laterite, red and yellow, arid, forest.
15. Alluvial soil is the most widely spread and important soil. It is a fertile soil and is also known as clayey or loamy soil. Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soil are intensively cultivated and densely populated.
16. Black soils are also called ‘regur soils.’ They are ideal for the growth of cotton. Laterite soil develops in areas with high temperatures and heavy rainfall. These soils are suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.
17. Arid soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. Forest soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas. They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse-grained in the upper slopes.
18. Human activities such as deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining etc. lead to soil Various methods can be applied for soil conservation such as contour farming in mountainous regions, strip cropping in large fields, planting lines of trees to create shelter, terrace farming, etc.
Resource and Development Class 10 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Resource: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs.
Biotic resources: Resources which are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock, etc.
Abiotic resources: Resources which are composed of non-living things such as rocks and metals.
Renewable resources: Resources which can be reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes such as solar and wind energy.
Non-renewable resources: Resources which cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use such as minerals and fossil fuels.
Individual resources: Resources which are owned privately by individuals.
Community-owned resources: Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community.
National resources: Resources which belong to the nation. All minerals, water resources, forest, etc. are national resources.
Potential resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized. Developed resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization.
Reserves: They are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technology.
Soil: The uppermost layer of the earth.