CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Manufacturing sector is the backbone of economic development. Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
2. Agriculture and industry move hand in hand. Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has helped agriculturists in increasing their production. It has also made the production processes very efficient.
3. The trend of growth rate in manufacturing over the last decade has been around 7 per cent per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12 per cent. Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9 to 10 per cent per annum.
4. Industrial locations are influenced by availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc. The places where industries are located, urbanisation takes place. Cities provide markets and also provide services like banking, insurance, etc.
6. Agro-based industries such as cotton, jute, silk, sugar, etc., are based on agricultural raw materials.
7. The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy. It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e. from raw material to the highest value added products.
Note: Content Mentioned On Page No. 74-75 Ncert, Geograpy Textbook i.e. Aluminum smelting, Chemical industries, Fertilizer industry, Cement industry is not required to be delivered in calss room during instruction.
8. The cotton textile industry, mainly located in Maharashtra and Gujarat, has close links with
agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving etc. This industry supports many other industries such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials, etc.
9. India exports yarn to Japan, USA, UK, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, etc. The country has a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn, accounting for one fourth of the total trade.
10. India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra. After partition in 947, the jute mills remained in India but most jute-producing areas went to East Pakistan, which is now Bangladesh.
11. India ranks second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. In 2010-11, there were over 662 sugar mills in the country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, etc. This industry is seasonal in nature.
12. The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries depend on it for their machinery. This is also a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as finished goods are : heavy and bulky.
13. In 2010-11, India ranked fourth among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron. In 2010-11, per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 49 kg per annum against the world average of 182 kg.
14. The automobile industry enjoys key importance in India. Trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres. After the liberalisation, this industry got a jump.
15. The electronics industry is associated with a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, etc. Bangalore is the electronic capital of India.
16. Industries play a significant role in India’s economic growth. But at the same time they have degraded environment by polluting land, water, air and noise. Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
17. Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers. Thermal power plants also pollute water.
18. To control environmental degradation, it is essential to reduce industrial pollution of fresh water, Overdrawing of ground water reserves by industry also needs to be regulated legally. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Industrial agglomeration or agglomeration economies: Agglomeration economies are the benefits that come when firms and people locate near one another together in cities and industrial clusters.
Agro-based industry: The industry that converts the agricultural products into industrial products.
Mineral-based industry: The industry that uses mineral and metals as raw materials.
Basic or key industry: The industry that supplies its products or raw materials to manufacture other goods.
Consumer industry: The industry that produces goods for direct use by consumers.
Small-scale industry: The industry that invests capital of about one crore.
Public sector industry: The industry owned and operated by government agencies.
Private sector industry: The i4ndustry owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
Light industry: The industry that uses light raw materials and produces light goods.
Yarn: Spun thread used for knitting, weaving, or sewing.