CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 7 Notes Understanding The Lesson
1. New arts, crafts and production activities flourished in towns and villages.
2. Over the centuries, important political, social and economic developments had taken place.
3. Social change was not the same everywhere, because different kinds of societies evolved differently.
4. Society was already divided according to the rules of vama. The rules of vama was prescribed by the Brahmanas and accepted by the rulers of large kingdoms.
5. The difference between the high and low, and between the rich and poor, increased.
6. Many societies in the subcontinent did not follow the social rules and rituals prescribed by the Brahmanas and nor were they divided into numerous unequal classes. Such societies are often called tribes.
7. Tribes were united by kinship bonds. Tribes obtained their livelihood from agriculture, herders. Some tribes were nomadic and moved from one place to another.
8. A tribal group controlled land and pastures jointly, and divided these amongst households according to its own rules.
9. Many tribes usually lived in forests, hills, deserts and places difficult to reach.
10. The tribes retained their freedom and preserved their separate culture.
11. Caste-based and tribal societies also depended on each other for their diverse needs. This relationship, of conflict and dependence, gradually caused both societies to change.
12. Mostly tribal people did not keep written records, but they preserved rich customs and oral traditions. These were passed down to each new generation.
13. Some powerful tribes controlled large territories. In Punjab, the Khokhar tribe was very influential during the 13th and 14th Later, the Gakkharas became more important. Their chief, Kamal Khan Gakkhar was made a ‘mansabdar’ by Emperor Akbar.
14. Langahs and Arghuns tribals dominated extensive regions in Multan and Sind.
15. The Balochis were another large and powerful tribe in the north-west. They were divided into many smaller clans under different chiefs.
16. In the western Himalaya lived the shepherd tribe of Gaddis.
17. The north-eastern part of the subcontinent too was entirely dominated by tribes—the Nagas, Ahoms and many others.
18. In many areas of present-day Bihar and Jharkhand, Chero Chiefdoms had emerged by the 12th The Mundas and Santals tribes lived in this region and also in Orissa and Bengal.
19. Kolies, Berads and others belonged to Maharashtra highlands and Karnataka.
20. Kolis also lived in many areas of Gujarat.
21. In South, there were large tribal populations of Koragas, Vetars, Maravars and others.
22. The large tribe of Bhils was spread across western and central India. Many of them had become settled agriculturists and some even zamindars.
23. The Gonds were found in great numbers across the present day states of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
24. Nomadic pastoralists moved over long distances with their animals. They lived on milk and other pastoral products. They exchanged wool, ghee etc., for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
25. The Banjaras were the most important trader nomads. Their caravan was called tanda. Sultan Alauddin Khalji used the Banjaras to transport grain to the city markets. They transported food grain for the Mughal army during military campaigns.
26. Many pastoral tribes reared and sold animals such as cattle and horses to the prosperous people.
27. Different castes of petty pedlars also travelled from village to village. They made and sold ropes, reeds, straw matting and coarse sacks.
28. Some castes were entertainers who performed in different towns and villages for their livelihood.
29. Among the Kshatriyas, new Rajput clans became powerful by the 11th and 12th They belonged to different lineages, such as Hunas, Chandelas, Chalukyas and others. Some of these had been tribes earlier. Many of these clans came to be regarded as Rajputs.
30. Some leading tribal families could join the ruling class while many tribes became part of the caste system.
31. The Gonds lived in a vast forested region called Gondwana. They practiced shifting cultivation. They had many clans and each clan had its own raja or rai. In the Akbar Nama it has been mentioned that the Gond kingdom of Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages. The kingdom was divided into garhs. This was further divided into units of 84 villages called chaurasi. The Chaurasi was subdivided into barhots which were made up of 12 villages each.
32. The Ahoms migrated to the Brahmaputra valley from present-day Myanmar in the 13th During the 16th century they annexed the kingdoms of the Chhutiyas and Koch-Hajo and subjugated many other tribes.
33. The Ahoms built a large state and for this they used firearms and high quality gunpowder and cannons.
34. Almost all adult males served in the army during war. There were engaged in building dams, irrigation systems and other public works.
35. The Ahoms also introduced new methods of rice cultivation.
36. The Ahom society was divided into clans or khels and a Khel controlled over several villages.
37. There were very few artisans’ castes, so they came from adjoining kingdoms.
38. The Ahoms worshipped their own tribal gods however, the influence of Brahmanas increased. Temples, Brahmanas, poets and scholars were granted land by the king. In the reign of Sib Singh, Hinduism became the predominant religion, but the Ahom kings did not completely give up their traditional beliefs after adopting Hinduism.
39. Theatre was encouraged. Important works of Sanskrit were translated into the local language. Historical works, known as buranjis were also written first in the Ahom language and then in Assamese.
40. In 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla attacked the Ahom kingdom and controlled the region.
Towns, Traders, and Craftsperson Class 7 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Clan: A group of families or households claiming descent from a common.
Nomads: People who are always moving from one place to another for their livelihood.
Tanda: The Caravan of the Banjaras was called tanda.
Itinerant group: Groups of craftspersons, pedlars and entertainers travelling from place to place practicing their different occupations are called itinerant groups.
Shifting cultivation: In the Shifting cultivation trees and bushes in a forest area are first cut and burnt. The crop is sown in the ashes. When this land loses its fertility, another plot of land is cleared and planted in the same way.
Notes of History Class 7 Chapter 7 Time Period
1523: The Ahoms annexed the kingdoms of the Chhutiyas.
1581: The Ahoms annexed the kingdoms of the Koch-Hajo
1591: Raja Man Singh attacked and defeated the Cheros.
1662: Mir Jumla attacked the Ahom kingdom.