NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1 Notes How, When and Where

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NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1 Notes How, When and Where

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 1 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. History is/was always synonymous with dates.

2. Historians were always fascinated with dates.

3. History is about changes that occur over time.

4. History is about finding:

  • How things were in the past.
  • How things have changed.

5. Robert Clive asked Rennel to produce the maps of Hindustan.

6. Rennel saw maps preparation as essential to the process of domination.

7. A single date, cannot be fixed at which British rule was established, National Movement started or the changes took place within the economy and society gradually. All these happened over a stretch of time or a span of time.

8. Third son of Queen Victoria of Britain, Prince Arthur was given the title ‘Duke of Connaught’.

9. Dates in history are vital because that focuses on a particular set of events changes.

10. Histories written by British historians in India consider rule of each governor-general as important. These histories began with the rule of First Governor-General, Warren Hastings and ended with last Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten.

11. Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of India in 1773.

12. History book narrates the deeds of governors-general, while biographies glorified them as persons and paintings protected them as powerful figures.

13. In 1817, James Mill (Scottish economist and political philosopher) published massive three volume work, A History of India’.

14. James divided History of India in three periods – Hindu, Muslim and British.

15. History is divided into different periods to capture the characteristics of a time, its central features.

16. Mill thought that Asian societies were at a lower level of civilization than Europe. According to him, before British rule in India, Hindus and Muslims despots ruled the country.

17. Mill felt there were religious intolerance, caste taboos and superstitions in India but after the British rule, Indian society became civilised.

18. Apart from the British classification, historians usually classified Indian History into:

  • Ancient
  • Medieval
  • Modern

19. This periodization has been borrowed from west.

20. Modern in west is associated to growth of all forces of modernity that are – science, reason, democracy, liberty and equality.

21. Medieval describes society where features of Modem Society don’t exist.

22. Under the British rule, there was absence of equality, freedom or liberty. Therefore, some historians classified this period as colonial.

23. The subjugation of one country by another leads to change of political, economical and social condition. This process is referred to as colonisation.

24. Sources used by historians in their writings are:

  • Official records of the British administration.
  • Preserved letters and documents.
  • Record rooms where records were preserved for administrative institutions.

25. Documents were copied carefully and beautifully written by the

26. By the middle of 19th century, there was spread of printing.

27. The National Archives of India came up in the 1920’s.

28. The practice of surveying became important under colonial administration.

29. The sources like diaries of people, accounts of pilgrims and travellers, autobiographies of important personalities, leaders and reformers were written to spread their ideas, these sources were produced by the literates. So this will not help anyone to understand how history was experienced and lived by the tribals, peasants, workers, etc.

How, When and Where Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Colonization: The subjugation of one country by the another leads to different kinds of changes in political, economical, social and cultural aspects. This process is referred to as colonization.

Calligraphists: These are people who are specialized in the art of beautiful writing.

Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 1 Time Period

1773: Warren Hastings became the First Governor-General of India.

1817: ‘A History of British India’ published by James Mill.

1857: Massive rebel against British rule broke out in 1857.

1920: The National Archives of India came up.

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