CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 3 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Germany was a powerful empire in the early twentieth century. It fought the First World War (1914-1918) alongside the Austrian empire and against the Allies.
2. Germany was defeated in 1918 and the emperor was abdicated. This gave an opportunity to parliamentary parties to recast German polity. A National Assembly met at Weimar and established a democratic constitution with a federal structure.
3. German people did not welcome the new Weimar Republic because they held it responsible for the defeat of Germany in the war and the disgrace at Versailles.
4. Germany faced deep economic crisis in 1923. It had fought the war largely on loans and had to pay war reparations in gold. This depleted gold reserves at a time resources were scarce.
5. The German economy was further hit by the Great Economic Depression. By 1932, industrial production was reduced to 40 percent of the 1929 level. Workers lost their jobs. The economic crisis created deep anxiety and fears in people. Since the Weimar Republic failed to manage this crisis; people lost confidence in the democratic parliamentary system.
6. All this formed the background of Hitler’s rise to power. The German defeat horrified Hitler and the Versailles Treaty made him furious. In 1919, he joined the German Worker’s Party. He subsequently took over the organization and renamed it the National Socialist German Worker’s Party which later came to be known as the Nazi Party.
7. Nazism became a mass movement during the Great Depression. In a situation when workers lost jobs and the middle classes were threatened with destitution, Nazi propaganda stirred hopes in them. In 1928, the Nazi Party was not very successful but by 1932, it had become the largest party. Hitler impressed the German people with his powerful speeches. He promised them to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore their dignity.
8. On 30 January 1933, Hitler was offered the Chancellorship of Germany. Having acquired power, Hilter set out to dismantle the structures of democratic rule. Civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly were suspended. The Communists were sent to the newly established concentration camps.
9. The famous Enabling Act, passed on 3 March 1933, established dictatorship in Germany. Hilter became the most powerful man in the country. He sidelined Parliament and rule by decree. He also banned all political parties and trade unions.
10. Special surveillance and security forces were created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted. People could now be detained in Gestapo (secrete state police) torture chambers, rounded up and sent to concentration camps.
11. Hitler got quick success in his foreign policy. He integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan, One people, One empire and One leader.
12. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England. In September 1940, a Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan which strengthened Hitler’s claim to international power.
13. Hitler created an exclusive racial community of pure German by eliminating all those who were seen as ‘undesirable’ in extended empire. Nazis wanted only a society of pure and healthy Nordic Aryan’s. Only they were seen as worthy of prospering and multiplying against all who were classed; as ‘undesirables’.
14. Jews, Gypsies and blacks living in Nazi Germany were widely persecuted. Even Russians and Poles were considered subhuman. However, Jews remained the worst sufferers. They were terrorized, pauperized and segregated.
15. Hitler was fanatically interested in the youth of the country. He felt that a strong Nazi society could be established only by teaching children Nazi ideology. So, all schools were ‘cleansed’ and ‘purified’. Jew teachers and children were thrown out of schools.
16. School textbooks were rewritten, racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas of race. Children were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews, and worship Hitler.
17. Youth organizations were made responsible for educating German youth in ‘the spirit of National Socialism’. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk and at 14 all boys had to join the Nazi youth organization e. Hilter youth where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression and violence, and condemn democracy.
18. In Nazi Germany, all mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially undesirable children were punished and those who produced racially desirable children were awarded.
19. The art of propaganda that Nazis used was peculiar. They never used the words ‘kill’ or ‘murder’ in their official communications. Mass killings were termed special treatment, final solution (for the Jews), euthanasia (for the disabled), selection and ‘Evacuation’ meant deporting people to gas chambers.
Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Allies: The Allied Powers were initially led by the UK and France. In 1941 they were joined by the USSR and USA. They fought against the Axis Powers, namely Germany, Italy and Japan.
Genocidal: Killing on large scale leading to destruction of large sections of people.
Deplete: Reduce, empty out.
Reparation: Make up for a wrong done.
Wall Street Exchange: The name of the world’s biggest stock exchange located in the USA.
Hyperinflation: A situation when prices rise phenomenally high.
Proletarianization: To become impoverished to the level of working classes.
Propaganda: Specific type of message directly aimed at influencing the opinion of people through the use of posters, films, speeches, etc.
Concentration camp: A camp where people were isolated and detained without due process of law. Typically, it was surrounded by electrified barbed wire fences.
Nordic German Aryans: One branch of those classified as Aryans. They lived in north European countries and had German or related origin.
Gypsy: The groups that were classified as ‘gypsy’ had their own community identity. Sinti and Roma were too such communities. Many of them traced their origin to India.
Pauperised: Reduce to absolute poverty.
Persecution: Systematic, organized punishment of those belonging to a group or religion.
Usurers: Moneylenders charging excessive interest, often used as a term of abuse.
Synagogues: Place of worship for people of Jewish faith.
Jungvolk: Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age.
Holocaust: It was a genocide in which Hitler’s Nazi Germany and its collaborators killed about six million Jews.
Notes of History Class 9 Chapter 3 Time Period
1914: The First World War broke out.
1917: Entry of the USA in the First World War.
1918: The First World War ended.
1919: Treaty of Versailles.
1923: Economic crisis in Germany.
1929: The Great Economic Depression started.
1932: The Nazi Party became the largest party in the German Parliament.
1933: Hilter was made Chancellor of Germany.
1939: Germany invaded Poland, Second World War began.
1940: Hitler was at the height of his power.
1941: The USA joined Second World War.
1945: Allied victory in Europe, Hitler was defeated.