NCERT Exemplar Problems Class 9 Science – Tissues

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NCERT Exemplar Problems Class 9 Science – Tissues

Question 1:
Which of the following tissues has dead cells?
(a) Parenchyma (b) Sclerenchyma
(c) Collenchyma (d) Epithelial tissue
(b) Sclerenchyma cells are the permanent tissues present in the plants. They provide
hardness and stiffness to the plant and are composed of dead cells. This tissue is present in stems around vascular bundles in the veins of leaves and in hard covering of seeds and nuts.
e.g., the husk of coconut is made up of sclerenchymatous tissues. The cells of sclerenchyma are long narrow and thickened due to lignin.

Question 2:
Find out incorrect sentence
(a) Parenchymatous tissues have intercellular spaces.
(b) Collenchymatous tissues are irregularly thickened at corners.
(c) Apical and intercalary meristems are permanent tissues.
(d) Meristematic tissues, in its early stage, lack vacuoles.
(c) Parenchyma serves as a packing tissue in plants therefore they do not have intercellular spaces. Collenchymatous tissues are mechanical tissues in the plants and are characterised by deposition of cellulose at the corners of the cell, which leads to localised thickenings of the cell wall.
Apical and intercalary meristem bring primary growth (increase in height) and secondary growth (increase in diameter) respectively and are classified under meristematic tissues. Meristematic tissue are dividing units of the plants and contain dense cytoplasm and large nucleus with few or no vacuoles at all.

Question 3:
Girth of stem increases due to
(a) apical meristem (b) lateral meristem
(c) vertical meristem (d) intercalary meristem
(b) Girth of the stem increases due to lateral meristematic tissues. They are found beneath the bark (called cork cambium) and in vascular bundles of dicot roots and stems (called vascular cambium) as thin layers. This increase in the diameter and girth of the plant is called secondary growth.
The apical meristem is situated at the growing tip of stems, root and also at the apices of leaf. They bring about elongation, i.e., increase in height (primary growth) of the plant. Intercalary meristem are located at base of leaf and internode and produces an increase in the length of an organ.

Question 4:
Which cell does not have perforated cell wall?
(a) Tracheids (b) Companion cells
(c) Sieve tubes (d) Vessels
(b) Tracheids and vessels are xylem elements and are concerned with the transport of water. They are long tube-like structures with partially or completely dissolved walls to form water pipes (in vessels) and pits in cell wall (in tracheids) for conducting water. Sieve tubes are slender tube-like structures with their end walls perforated by numerous pores and are called sieve plates. They are phloem elements and are main food conducting elements. Companion cells possess numerous mitochondria and ribosomes and are supporting units of sieve tubes.

Question 5:
Intestine absorb the digested food materials. What type of epithelial cells are responsible for that?
(a) Stratified squamous epithelium (b) Columnar epithelium
(c) Spindle fibres (d) Cuboidal epithelium
(b) Columnar epithelium consist of pillar-like cells with their nuclei towards the base. They form the lining of stomach, small intestine and colon, forming the mucous membrane. Their main function is absorption (e.g., stomach, intestine) and secretion (e.g., mucous by goblet cells).
Stratified squamous epithelium, also known as pavement epithelium is covered by fibrous protein, (keratin) that covers the skin. This epithelium is waterproof and resistant to mechanical injury. Cuboidal epithelium is found in kidney tubules, thyroid vesicles and in glands.

Question 6:
A person met with an accident in which two long bones of hand were dislocated. Which among the following may be the possible reason?
(a) Tendon break
(b) Break of skeletal muscle
(c) Ligament break
(d) Areolar tissue break
(c) Dislocation of joint occurs when there is an abnormal separation in joint, which are held together by ligament. Therefore ligament break and may result in dislocation of bone.
Areolar tissues join skin to muscles, fills spaces inside organs and is found around muscles, blood vessels and nerves. Hence are not concerned with bones.
Tendon break may cause inflammation and occurs due to factors including age, body weight, nutrition, sports, etc.

Question 7:
While doing work and running, you move your organs like hands, legs, etc. Which among the following is correct?
(a) Smooth muscles contract and pull the ligament to move the bones
(b) Smooth muscles contract and pull the tendons to move the bones
(c) Skeletal muscles contract and pull the ligament to move the bones
(d) Skeletal muscles contract and pull the tendon to move the bones
(d) Skeletal muscles are striped, voluntary muscles, due to presence of alternate dark and light bands. They are called voluntary as they work according to our will. While doing work and running skeletal muscles contract and pull the tendon (which connects muscles to bones) to move the bone.

Question 8:
Which muscles act involuntarily?
(i) Striated muscles (ii) Smooth muscles
(iii) Cardiac muscles (iv) Skeletal muscles
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (iii) and (iv) (d) (i) and (iv)
(b) Smooth muscles are found in the walls of hollow visceral organs. They do not work according to our will. They are involved in peristaltic movements of gastro intestinal tract and male genital tract. Cardiac muscles are present in the heart. They contract and relax rapidly, rhythmically and tirelessly. They help to pump the blood to various parts of the body. The working of both smooth and cardiac muscles is involuntary while skeletal or straited muscles move according to our will and are voluntary in action.

Question 9:
Meristematic tissues in plants are
(a) localised and permanent (b) not limited to certain regions
(c) localised and dividing cells (d) growing in volume
(c) Meristematic tissues consists of actively dividing cells and is present in the growing regions of plants, e.g., the tips of roots and stems. The cells of meristematic tissue are round, oval, polygonal or rectangular. They are packed closely without intercellular spaces, have thin cellulose walls, dense cytoplasm and prominent nuclei. Vacuoles are almost absent in such cells because they are completely filled with sap.

Question 10:
Which is not a function of epidermis?
(a) Protection from adverse condition (b) Gaseous exchange
(c) Conduction of water (d) Transpiration
(c) Epidermis is present as outermost layer of plant body such as leaves, flowers, stem and root. It is covered with cuticle (a waterproof layer of waxy substance cutin)
The main function of epidermis is to protect the plant from desiccation and infection. In fact, cuticle of epidermis helps to reduce water loss by evaporation from the plant surface and also helps in preventing the entry of pathogen (bacteria, fungi etc.). The aerial surface of many plant bear cutinised hair (trichomes) to reduce transpiration.

Question 11:
Select the incorrect sentence.
(a) Blood has matrix containing proteins, salts and hormones.
(b) Two bones are connected with ligament.
(c) Tendons are non-fibrous tissue and fragile.
(d) Cartilage is a form of connective tissue.
(c) Tendons are cord-like, strong, inelastic, structures that join skeletal muscles to bones.
A tendon is a white fibrous tissue which has great strength but limited flexibility. It consists of parallel bundles of collagen fibres, between which are present, rows of fibroblasts (called tendinocytes).

Question 12:
Cartilage is not found in
(a) nose (b) ear (c) kidney (d) larynx
(c) Cartilage is specialised connective tissue, which is compact and less vascular. The cartilage cells (chondroblasts) are widely spaced and the matrix is reinforced by fibres. Cartilage occurs at the joints of bones, in the nose, ear, trachea and larynx. It helps in smootheing the surface at the joints. It lends support and provides flexibility to the body parts.

Question 13:
Fats are stored in human body as
(a) cuboidal epithelium (b) adipose tissue
(c) bones (d) cartilage
(b) Adipose tissue consists of oval and round cells filled with fat globules, scattered in the matrix. This tissue is found below the skin, between internal organs and in the yellow bone marrow. It stores fat and acts as an insulator.
Cuboidal epithelium help in absorption, excretion and secretion, whereas bones and cartilage are specialised connective tissue and they provide support to the internal organs.

Question 14:
Bone matrix is rich in
(a) fluoride and calcium (b) calcium and phosphorus
(c) calcium and potassium (d) phosphorus and potassium
(b) Bone cells are embedded in a hard matrix, which is strengthened by fibres, and hardened by calcium and phosphorus salts. The matrix is deposited in form of concentric layers of lamellae formed around a central Haversion canal.

Question 15:
Contractile proteins are found in
(a) bones (b) blood (c) muscles (d) cartilage
(c) Contractile proteins are found in muscles, as they are associated with the movement of body or limbs. The contraction and relaxation of contractile proteins, present in muscles bring about movements of limbs, internal organs, etc.
The bones are the major supporting tissue which form the endoskeleton of a vertebrate body.
Blood is a fluid connective tissue responsible for transport of oxygen, nutrients, hormones etc,, and for producing antitoxins and antibodies, etc.
Cartilage provides support and flexibility to the body parts and smoothens surface at joints.

Question 16:
Voluntary muscles are found in
(a) alimentary canal (b) limbs
(c) iris of the eye (d) bronchi of lungs
(b) Voluntary muscles are the muscles, which are under our complete control for, e.g., the working and movement of limbs. On the other hand involuntary muscles are controlled by hypothalamus, i.e., they are regulated rhythmically, e.g., alimentary canal, iris of the eye and bronchi of lungs.

Question 17:
Nervous tissue is not found in
(a) brain (b) spinal cord (c) tendons (d) nerves
(c) Tendons are the connective tissue, which join skeletal muscles to bones, hence nervous tissue is absent is them. Nervous tissue is specialised to transmit messages within our body. It contains highly specialised unit cells called nerve cells or neurons. They have the ability to receive stimuli from within or outside the body and to conduct (send) impulses (signals) to different parts of the body. Brain, spinal cord are all associated with the regulation of body activity and are composed of nervous tissue.

Question 18:
Nerve cell does not contain
(a) axon (b) nerve endings (c) tendons (d) dendrites
(c) Each nerve cell or neuron Is composed of three parts
(i) Cyton or cell body It contains central nucleus and cytoplasm with characteristic deeply stained
particles called Nissl’s granules (i.e., clumps of ribosome).
(ii) Dendron These are short processes arising from cyton and further branching into dendrites.
(iii) Axon It is a single long cylindrical process of uniform diameter which forms fine branches terminally. The dendrites receives impulses and the axon takes impulses away from the cell body.
(Also, refer to Q. 17)

Question 19:
Which of the following helps in repair of tissue and fills up the space inside the organ?
(a) Tendon (b) Adipose tissue (c) Areolar (d) Cartilage
(c) Areolar tissue is a loose and cellular connective tissue. Its matrix consists of two kinds of fibres, i.e., the white collagen fibres (which changes into gelatin on boiling in water) and the yellow elastic fibres or elastin. Several other kinds of irregular cells, (e.g., fibroblasts), which can engulf bacteria and prevent infection (e.g., macrophages) are also present in the matrix.

Question 20:
The muscular tissue which function throughout the life continuously without fatigue is
(a) skeletal muscle (b) cardiac muscle
(c) smooth muscle (d) voluntary muscle
(b) Cardiac muscles show characteristics of both smooth and striated muscles. These muscles are striated, cylindrical, branched and involuntary in nature. In addition to the light and dark bands, these muscles show densely stained cross bands called intercalated dises.
These act as impulse boosters. Cardiac muscles contract and relax rapidly, rhythmically and tirelessly throughout a lifetime, from early embryonic stage until death. Voluntary muscles are under our control and act accordingly to our need, e.g., skeletal muscles.
Smooth muscles also known as striated, visceral or involuntary muscles are found in walls of hollow tubular organs like alimentary canal, ducts of glands, urogenital ducts and blood vessels except heart. They show slow contractions but remain contracted for a long period of time.

Question 21:
Whidr of the following cells is found in the cartilaginous tissue of the body?
(a) Mast cells (b) Basophils (c) Osteocytes (d) Chondrocytes
(d) The matrix of cartilage has delicate network of collagen fibres and chondrocytes (living cells). These are present in fluid-filled spaces called lacunae. Chondrocytes multiply by mitosis and help in internal growth of cartilage.
A mast cell is a resident granulocyte of several type of tissue. It contains granules rich in histamine and heparin. They play a key role in allergy and are involved in wound healing and defense against pathogens.
Basophils are granulocytes of white blood cells (WBCs) and are involved in function of body defence by engulfing bacteria and other foreign substances.
Osteocytes are the bone cells.
(Also, refer to Q. 14)

Question 22:
The dead element present in the phloem is
(a) companion cells (b) phloem fibres
(c) phloem parenchyma (d) sieve tubes
(b) Phloem fibres are thick walled, elongated spindle shaped dead cells which possess narrow lumen. They provides mechanical support to the tissue. Phloem parenchyma are thin walled-living cells of parenchyma. They have two functions, storage and lateral food conduction.
(Also, refer to Q. 4)

Question 23:
Which of the following does not lose their nucleus at maturity?
(a) Companion cells (b) Red blood cells
(c) Vessel (d) Sieve tube cells
(a) Companion cells are present along the sieve tube are connected to them via plasmodesmata. These cells are metabolically active and sieve tube elements are dependent on these cells they do not lose nucleus at maturity. RBC vessels and sieve tube cells lose their nucleus at maturity.

Question 24:
In desert plants, rate of water loss gets reduced due to the presence of
(a) cuticle (b) stomata (c) lignin (d) suberin
(a) Cuticle are protective, hydrophobic waxy covering produced by epidermal cells of leaves, young shoots and other aerial parts. It minimises the water loss through transpiration (with the help of stomata) and also reduces pathogen entry.
Lignin hardens the cell wall and provides flexibilty, tensile and compressional strength to the cell wall. Suberin is present in cork cells and makes the cell impervious to water.

Question 25:
A long tree has several branches. The tissue that helps in the side ways conduction of water in the branches is
(a) collenchyma (b) xylem parenchyma
(c) parenchyma (d) xylem vessels
(d) Xylem vessels are very long tube-like structures formed by a row of cells placed end to end. The transverse walls between these cells are partially or completely dissolved to form continous water channels.(Also, refer to Q. 2 and 22)

Question 26:
If the tip of sugarcane plant is removed from the field, even then it keeps on growing in length. It is due to the presence of
(a) cambium (b) apical meristem
(c) lateral meristem (d) intercalary meristem
(a) If the tip of sugarcane plant is removed the apical meristem is also removed as it is situated in the apices of growing roots and stem.
Intercalary meristem are located at the base of leaves or nodes and leads to the increase in the length of an organ such as leaves and internodes.

Question 27:
A nail is inserted in the trunk of a tree at a height of 1 metre from the ground level. After 3 years the nail will
(a) move downwards (b) move upwards
(c) remain at the same position (d) move sideways
(c) When a nail is inserted in the trunk of a tree at a height of 1 metre from the ground, even after 3 year the nail remains at same level. It does not moves upwards as the apical meristem responsible for growth (length) is present in the apices only and lateral meristem responsible of increase in girth will lead to no change in length.

Question 28:
Parenchyma cells are
(a) relatively unspecified and thin walled
(b) thick walled and specialised
(c) lignified
(d) None of the above
(a) Parenchyma cells form the bulk of the plant body. Its cells are living and they possess the power of division. The cells are rounded or isodiametric, i.e., equally expanded on all sides. The cells are oval, round, polygonal or elongated in shape with a thin cell wall. It encloses a dense cytoplasm, which contains small nucleus and surrounds large central vacoule.

Question 29:
Flexibility in plants is due to
(a) collenchyma (b) sclerenchyma (c) parenchyma (d) chlorenchyma
(a) Collenchyma consist of living cells and are characterised by the presence of cellulose.
Collenchyma is a mechanical tissue in young dicotyledonous stems and provides mechanical support and elasticity. It provides great tensile strength with flexibility to those organs in which it is found. It allows easy bending in various parts of a plant mainly young growing stem without breaking them.

Question 30:
Cork cells are made impervious to water and gases by the presence of
(a) cellulose (b) lipids (c) suberin (d) lignin
(c) Cellulose is the basic of the cell wall present in plants. The cell wall of almost all the organism are made up of cellulose whereas lipids along with some proteins forms the basic building blocks of plasma membrane. Plasma membrane is semipermeable and it is not impervious to water.
Lignin is a complex polymer which acts as a cement and hardens the cell wall. It provides flexibility, great tensile and compressional strength to the cell wall and makes the cell wall impermeable. It is present in sclerenchyma cells and not in cork cells. The walls of cork cells are heavily thickened with an organic substance, suberin. Suberin makes these cells impervious to water and gases.

Question 31:
Survival of plants in terrestrial environment has been made possible by the presence of
(a) intercalary meristem (b) conducting tissue
(c) apical meristem (d) parenchymatous tissue
(b) The conducting tissues in plants conduct different saps and have different structures.
The primary conducting tissues of plants are xylem and phloem. Xylem conducts water from roots to the other parts of the plant, whereas phloem transports food and other material from the leaves to other parts of plants.

Question 32:
Choose the wrong statement
(a) The nature of matrix differs according to the function of the tissue.
(b) Fats are stored below the skin and in between the internal organs.
(c) Epithelial tissues have intercellular spaces between them.
(d) Cells of striated muscles are multinucleate and unbranched.
(a) The nature of matrix differs according to their function for, e.g., cartilage has calcium salts as it provides support to bones whereas muscles passes contractile proteins for their function of movement. {Also, refer to Q. 13)

Question 33:
The water conducting tissue generally present in gymnosperm is
(a) vessels (b) sieve tube (c) tracheids (d) xylem fibres
Answer :
(c) The gymnosperms are characterised by the presence of tracheids as their major conducting tissue. These are elongated dead cells with hard lignified walls. They conduct water and do not have open ends like the vessels.

Question 34:
Animals of colder regions and fishes of cold water have thicker layer of subcutaneous fat. Describe why?
The subcutaneous fat or adipose tissue lies just below the skin surface or in between internal organs. Being poor conductor of heat it acts as a a good insulator. It reduces the heat loss from the body, i.e., regulates the body temperature.

Question 35:
Blood is a fluid connective tissue as it transports nutrients, hormones and vitamins to the tissue and excretory products from tissues to the liver and kidney. Areolar tissue is the simplest and most widely distributed connective tissue. It acts as a supporting and packing tissue and joins muscles to skin and fills spaces inside organs.
Skeletal muscles are also called striated muscles due to the presence of alternate dark and light bands called striations. Adipose tissue is fat reservoir and is present just below the skin and is called subcutaneous layer. Surface of joints is covered by cartilage. It provides support and fexibilty to the body parts and smoothens the surface at joints.
stratified squamous epithelium is characterised by the presence of keratin. it lines the skin and covers the external surface.

Question 36:
Match the column I with the column II
The correct matching is
Parenchyma are thin walled cells found in soft parts of the plant. In hydrophytes such as water hyacinth, Hydrilla etc., large air cavities are present in parenchyma to give buoyancy to plant. Such type of parenchyma is called aerenchyma.
(Also, refer to Q. 1 and 2)

Question 37:
If a potted plant is covered with a glass jar, water vapours appear on the wall of glass jar. Explain why?
Epidermis of a leaf is not continuous at all the places due to the presence of small pores, called stomata. Each stoma is bounded by a pair of specialised epidermal cells or two kidney-shaped cells called guard cells. The concave sides of these guard cells face each other and have a space forming the stomatal opening.
The stoma allows gaseous exchange to occur during photosynthesis and respiration. During transpiration water vapour escapes through stomatal opening, this results in appearance of water vapour on the wall of glass jar, if a potted plant is covered with it.

Question 38:
Name the different components of xylem and draw a living component?
Xylem is made up of four different types of cells or elements
(a) Tracheids (b) xylem vessels
(c) xylem fibre (d) xylem parenchyma
Xylem parenchyma is the living component of xylem.
(a) Cross-section of xylem tissue
(b) Xylem parenchyma cells (living)

Question 39:
Draw and identify different elements of phloem.
The different elements of phloem are as below

Question 40:
Write true (T) or false (F)
(a) Epithelial tissue is protective tissue in animal body.
(b) The lining of blood vessels, lung alveoli and kidney tubules are all made up of epithelial tissue.
(c) Epithelial cells have a lot of intercellular spaces.
(d) Epithelial layer is permeable layer.
(e) Epithelial layer does not allow regulation of materials between body and external environment.
(a) True (b) True (c) False (d) False (e) True
Epithelial tissue in the protective layer of cells, which covers the surface of body and lines the infernal organs. It is present as lining of blood vessels (squamous epithelial tissue), lung alveoli and kidney tubules (columnar ciliated epithelial tissue). These cells are closely packed together and regulate the movement of materials between body and external environment.

Question 41:
Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary’ muscles. Give one example of each type.
The voluntary muscles are called so, as they can be regulated by our will. The functions carried by voluntary muscle cells is regulated by our own conscious control, e.g., movement of leg or arm by striated muscles.
The involuntary muscles can not be controlled by our conscious (will). The actions of these muscles are controlled by the hypothalamus, e.g., cardiac muscles regulate the beating of heart.

Question 42:
Differentiate the following activities on the basis of voluntary (V) or involuntary (IV) muscles.
(a) Jumping of frog
(b) Pumping of the heart
(c) Writing with hand
(d) Movement of chocolate in your intestine
(a) Jumping of frog is the activity of voluntary muscles as it is controlled by skeletal muscles
(b) Pumping of heart involuntary, e., it is controlled by cardiac muscles
(c) Writing with hand is voluntary muscles action.
(d) Movement of choclate in your intestine is involuntary muscles.
{Also, refer to Q. 41)

Question 43:
Fill in the blanks
(a) Lining of blood vessels is made up of……..
(b) Lining of small intestine is made up of…….
(c) Lining of kidney tubules is made up of…….
(d) Epithelial cells with cilia are found in……….. of our body.
(a) squamous epithelial tissue. (b) columnar ciliated epithelial tissue
(c) columnar ciliated epithelial tissue (d) alimentary canal (Also, refer to Q. 40)

Question 44:
Water hyacinth float on water surface. Explain.
Water hyacinth floats in water due to presence of large air cavities in the parenchyma tissue. These specialised parenchyma tissue are called aerenchyma. (Also, refer to Q. 36)

Question 45:
Which structure protects the plant body against the invasion of parasites?
Epithelial tissue is the protective covering of our body. (Also, refer to Q. 40)

Question 46:
Fill in the blanks
(a) Cork cells possesses. on their walls that makes it impervious to
gases and water.
(b) have tubular cells with perforated walls and are living in nature.
(c) Bone possesses a hard matrix composed of… and…………
(a) suberin (b) Sieve tubes of phloem
(c) proteins and minerals

Question 47:Why is epidermis important for the plants?
Epidermis is the protective covering of plant body. It protects the plants from desiccation and infection. (Also refer to 0. 10) –

Question 48:Fill in the blanks
(a) ……. are forms of complex tissue.
(b) have guard cells.
(c) Cells of cork contain a chemical called…….
(d) Husk of coconut is made of…….
(e) gives flexibility in plants.
(f) and……….. are both conducting tissues.
(g) Xylem transports…….. and……… from soil.
(h) Phloem transport ………….from ……… other parts of the plant.
(a) Xylem and phloem (b) Stomata
(c) suberin (d) sclerenchyma
(e) collenchyma (f) xylem and phloem
(g) water and minerals (h) food from leaves

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 49:
Differentiate between sclerenchyma and parenchyma tissues. Draw well labelled diagram
The major difference between sclerenchyma and parenchyma tissues are

Question 50:
Describe the structure and function of different types of epithelial tissues. Draw diagram of each type of epithelial tissue.
Epithelial tissue is the thin protective layer of cells which covers the surface of the body and lines the internal organs. The cells of this tissue are generally packed close together. The shape of the cells depends on the location and function of the tissue. Epithelial tissue originates from the ectoderm. But, epithelial tissue lining the intestine originates from the endoderm.
Epithelial tissue may be simple, i.e., composed of single layer of cells or stratified, i.e., made up of several layers of cells. Depending upon the shape and function of cells epithelial tissues are classified as
(i) Squamous epithelial tissue This tissue is composed of a single layer of thin and flat, plate-like ceils. The cells fit closely, like the bricks in a wall, to form a smooth membrane. It is also known as tesselated and pavement epithelium. It is found in the outer layer of the skin, and covers internal cavities and ducts. Tongue, oesophagus and the lining of the mouth are made up of squamous epithelium.
It is also found in blood vessels and alveoli. It protects the underlying parts of body from mechanical injury, entry of germs, chemicals and drying. It also forms a selectively permeable surface through which filtration occurs.
(ii) Cuboidal epithelial tissue
This tissue is composed of cube-like cells that fit closely. The cells look like squares in section, but the free surface appears hexagonal. This tissue lines the inside of the kidney tubules (the tubes leading from the cups of nephrons) thyroid vesicles and in glands like sweat glands, exocrine pancreas and the salivary glands.
It forms germinal epithelium of gonads (testes and ovaries). It helps in absorption, excretion and secretion. It also provides mechanical support.
(iii) Columnar ciliated epithelial tissue This tissue is generally composed of a single layer of column like cells. The presence of a conspicuous striated border of microvilli at the free surface end of each cell increases the surface area of the cell for absorption and secretion. It is generally found in the inner lining of the alimentary canal.
It also forms the lining of gall bladder and oviducts. The major functions of this tissue includes secretion {e.g., mucus of goblet cells) and absorption {e.g., stomach and intestine).
In some parts of the body, columnar epithelium develops protoplasmic outgrowths called cilia. The constant lashing movements of the cilia help to move substances.
It is found in the sperm ducts. It also lines the trachea (wind-pipe), bronchi (lungs), kidney tubules and oviducts (Fallopian tubes). Ciliated epithelium helps the movement of ova in the fallopian tubes and the movement of mucus in the respiratory tract.
(iv) Stratified squamous epithelial tissue This tissue is found in skin and covers the external dry surface of the skin. Cells of this tissue are arranged in many layers, but the cells forming different layers of this epithelium are not similar. Deeper layers of the tissue have cuboidal cells which become polygonal and finally flattened (squamous) towards the free surface.
The flattened cells of superficial layer may contain a fibrous protein, the keratin and become, dead cells and are called keratinised stratified squamous epithelium. This epithelium is water proof and highly resistant to mechanical injury.
(v) Glandular epithelial tissue Epithelial tissue often acquire additional specialisation as gland cells, which can secrete substances at the epithelial surface.
Sometimes, a portion of epithelial tissue folds in wards and a multicellular gland is formed. This is called glandular epithelium.

Question 51:
Draw well labelled diagrams of various types of muscles found in human body.
Human body consist of three types of muscles
Skeletal muscle It has striated, tubular, multinucleated fibres and is usually attached to skeleton. These are voluntary (under the control of our will). Often called striated muscles due to presence of alternate dark and light bands (straitions).
Smooth muscle It has spindle-shaped, non-striated uninucleated fibres and occurs in walls of internal organs. It is involutary in action.
Cardiac muscle It has striated, branched, uninucleated fibres and occurs only in the walls of the heart. It is involuntary in action.

Question 52:
Give reasons for
(a) Meristematic cells have a prominent nucleus and dense cytoplasm but they lack vacuole.
(b) Intercellular spaces are absent in sclerenchymatous tissues.
(c) We get a crunchy and granular feeling, when we chew pear fruit.
(d) Branches of a tree move and bend freely in high wind velocity.
(e) It is difficult to pull out the husk of a coconut tree.
(a) Meristematic cells are the continously dividing cells of the plant body i.e., they remain metabolically active and as we know that vacuoles serve the purpose of storage in plant cells. Therefore meristematic cells do not require vacuole.
(b) Sclerenchyma tissue are dead simple permanent tissue of the plant. The cells of sclerenchyma are closely packed without intercellular spaces, like tiles in mosaic floor so that, it can provide the strength, rigidity, flexibilty and elasticity to the plant to withstand various strains.
(c) We get a crunchy and granular feeling when we chew pear fruit due to the presence of sclerenchyma tissue. The cell walls of sclerenchyma are greatly thickened due to the presence of lignin. Lignin is a complex polymer with high tensile strength e., it does not breaks easily on stretching and a high compressional strength, it does not buckle easily
(d) Collenchyma cells are characterised by the deposition of extra cellulose at corners of the cell. In collenchyma intercellular spaces are absent and ceils are elongated. It is a mechanical tissue which provides support and elasticity to the branches of a tree so that, they move and bend freely in high wind velocity.
(e) It is difficult to pull out the husk of a coconut tree due to the presence of sclerenchyma tissue. The cells of sclerenchyma tissue are closely packed without intercellular spaces, a middle lamella exists between them. Middle lamella is a thin layer of connecting substance containing pectin, lignin and protein.

Question 53:
List the characteristics of cork. How are they formed? Mention their role.
As the plants grow older, the outer protective tissue {i.e., epidermis) undergoes certain changes. A strip of secondary meristem, called phellogen or cork cambium replaces the epidermis of the stem.
Cork cambium is a simple tissue, the cells are rectangular and their protoplast are vacuolated and contain tannins and chloroplasts. Cork cambium gives off new cells on its both sides, thus, forming cork (phellem) on the outer side and the secondary cortex or phelloderm on the inner side.
The layer of cells which is cut by cork cambium on the outer side ultimately becomes several layered thick cork (bark) of trees. Cells of cork are dead and compactly arranged without intercellular spaces. The walls of cork cells are heavily thickened with an organic substance (a fatty substance), called suberin, which makes these cells impermeable to water and gases.
Cork is protective in function. It’s cells prevent desiccation (loss of water from plant body), infection and mechanical injury. It is light and does not catch fire easily. Due to these properties, cork is used as insulators, shock-absorbers, linoleum (used as flooring) and sports goods (in making of shuttle cocks, cricket balls, wooden paddles of table tennis, etc.). Commercial cork is obtained from the stem surface of cork oak tree {Quercus suber) found in Southern Europe and North Africa.

Question 54:
Why are xylem and phloem called complex tissues? How are they different from one other?
A complex tissue consist of more than one type of cells having a common origin which coordinate to perform a common function. Xylem and phloem are called complex tissues as, they are made up of different types of cells.
Xylem is composed of four different types of cells (elements), namely
(i) tracheids
(ii) vessels
(iii) xylem parenchyma
(iv) xylem sclerenchyma (or fibre)
Phloem is also composed of four different types of elements
(i) sieve tubes
(ii) companion cells
(iii) phloem parenchyma
(iv) phloem fibre

Question 55:
(a) Differentiate between meristematic and permanent tissues in plants.
(b) Define the process of differentiation.
(c) Name any two simple and two complex permanent tissues in plants.
(a) The basic differences between meristematic and permanent tissues of plants are tabulated below
(b) Cells derived from the division of meristematic tissues take up specific roles and gradually lose their ability to divide. Thus, they form permanent tissue. The process by which the cells divide meristematically to take a permanent shape, size and function is called differentiation.
(c) Two simple permanent tissue in plants are parenchyma and collenchyma while two complex permanent tissue in plants are xylem and phloem.

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