Q.1. “Need of the hour is to conserve and manage our water resources.” Mention any four reasons. Suggest any two ways to conserve water. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. (i) To safeguard ourselves from health hazards.
(ii) To ensure food security.
(iii) To prevent degradation of our natural ecosystem.
(iv) To save the future generations from water crisis.
Suggestions : –
(i) Turn off the tap while brushing.
(ii) We should spread awareness regarding water conservation.
(iii) Rainwater harvesting.
Q.2. How is industrialisation responsible for water scarcity? Explain. Suggest any two ways to check water pollution.
Ans. (i) The ever increasing number of industries has made matter worse by exerting pressure on the existing freshwater resources.
(ii) Industries need power which is produced from water. The power is produced by the multipurpose projects.
(iii) Chemicals and gases released by industries also pollutes the water.
(i) Minimising use of soaps and detergents.
(ii) Minimising use of fertilizers.
Q.3. What is water scarcity? Mention any four factors responsible for water scarcity. [CBSE 2014]
What is meant by water scarcity and give any two causes of water scarcity ?
Ans. Shortage of water as compared to its demand is known as water scarcity.
Factors responsible :
(i) Overexploitation of water sources.
(ii) Improper management.
(iii) Unequal access of water among different social groups.
(iv) Industrialisation and urbanisation.
Q.4. “Overpopulation or large and growing population can lead to water scarcity.” Explain. Mention any two lessons which you have learnt from this.
Ans. Overpopulation or large and growing population can lead to water scarcity as :
(i) More population means more demand for water.
(ii) A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food.
(iii) To facilitate higher foodgrain production, water resources are being over exploited to expand the irrigated areas and the dry season agriculture.
(iv) Overutilisation of water results in lowering of the groundwater levels.
(i) There is need to check the growth of population.
(ii) Human beings need to care for nature.
Q.5. ‘Large multipurpose projects also lead to land degradation.’ Explain.
Ans. Multipurpose projects lead to land degradation because :
(i) Irrigation has changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive crops. This has led to the salinisation of the soil.
(ii) Regulating and damming of rivers affect the natural flow of rivers causing poor sediment flow.
(iii) The flood plains are deprived of silt.
(iv) Multipurpose projects induce pollution which leads to land degradation.
Q.6. Explain various problems associated with poor people due to construction of large dams. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Construction of large dams leads to the large-scale displacement of the local communities.
(ii) Local people have to give up their land and livelihood.
(ii) Pbor people lose meagre access and control over resources for the greater good of the nation.
(iv) The displaced people do not get full rehabilitation facilities from the government,
(v) The landless people have to work as labourers in factories or construction sites. Their lives become miserable.
Q.7. Name any two movements that have been started to oppose multipurpose projects. Who are benefitted from such projects ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (1) Two movements that have been started to oppose multipurpose projects are :
(i) Narmada Bachao Andolan was started against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being
built across the Narmada river in Gujarat.
(ii) Tehri Dam Andolan – Resistance to these projects has primarily been due to the large-scale displacement of local communities.
(2) The landowners and large farmers, industrialists and a few urban centers are benefitted from such projects.
Q.8. Why is rooftop rainwater harvesting important in Rajasthan ? Explain. [CBSE 2013, 14]
Ans. (i) The rainwater stored in tankas is an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
(ii) Rainwater is considered the purest form of natural water.
(iii) Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tanka to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.
(iv) There is lack of perennial rivers in Rajasthan.
(v) The rainfall is not reliable in this region.